Kelly, C.S., Nguyen, H., Luo, W., Chapman, K., Ling-Poon, J., Perez-Nieves, M., Baker, L., Wolf, W. A., Mitchell, B.


Severe hypoglycemic events are distressing. Although past studies have shown that young adulthood is a potentially distressing time, few studies have explored distress about severe hypoglycemia in this age group. The real-world psychosocial experiences of potential severe hypoglycemic events and the perceived impact of glucagon treatments like nasal glucagon are currently unknown. We explored perceptions of severe hypoglycemic events and impact of nasal glucagon on psychosocial experiences with these events in emerging adults with type 1 diabetes and caregivers of emerging adults and children/teens. Further, we compared perceptions of preparedness and protection in handling severe hypoglycemic events with nasal glucagon versus the emergency glucagon kit that requires reconstitution (e-kit).


This observational, cross-sectional study enrolled emerging adults (aged 18–26; N = 364) with type 1 diabetes, caregivers of emerging adults (aged 18–26; N = 138) with type 1 diabetes, and caregivers of children/teens (aged 4–17; N = 315) with type 1 diabetes. Participants completed an online survey about their experiences with severe hypoglycemia, perceptions of nasal glucagon impact on psychosocial experiences, and perceptions of feeling prepared and protected with nasal glucagon and the e-kit.


Many emerging adults (63.7%) agreed that the experience of severe hypoglycemic events was distressing; 33.3% and 46.7% of caregivers of emerging adults and children/teens, respectively, reported distress. Participants reported positive perceptions of nasal glucagon impact, particularly improved confidence in other people’s ability to help during severe hypoglycemic events: emerging adults, 81.4%; caregivers of emerging adults, 77.6%; caregivers of children/teens, 75.5%. Participants demonstrated higher perceptions of preparedness and protection for nasal glucagon than for the e-kit (p < 0.001).

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