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Diabetes is a risk factor for poor COVID-19 outcomes, but pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes are poorly represented in current studies.
T1D Exchange coordinated a US type 1 diabetes COVID-19 registry. Forty-six diabetes centers submitted pediatric cases for patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19. Associations between clinical factors and hospitalization were tested with Fisher’s Exact Test. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for hospitalization.
Data from 266 patients with previously established type 1 diabetes aged <19 years with COVID-19 were reported. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was the most common adverse outcome (n = 44, 72% of hospitalized patients). There were four hospitalizations for severe hypoglycemia, three hospitalizations requiring respiratory support (one of whom was intubated and mechanically ventilated), one case of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and 10 patients who were hospitalized for reasons unrelated to COVID-19 or diabetes. Hospitalized patients (n = 61) were more likely than nonhospitalized patients (n = 205) to have minority race/ethnicity (67% vs 39%, P < 0.001), public insurance (64% vs 41%, P < 0.001), higher A1c (11% [97 mmol/mol] vs 8.2% [66 mmol/mol], P < 0.001), and lower insulin pump and lower continuous glucose monitoring use (26% vs 54%, P < 0.001; 39% vs 75%, P < 0.001). Age and gender were not associated with risk of hospitalization. Higher A1c was significantly associated with hospitalization, with an odds ratio of 1.56 (1.34-1.84) after adjusting for age, gender, insurance, and race/ethnicity.
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